"Mi piace assai questo costume di Venezia; colla maschera al viso ognuna va dove vuol, con chi vuol, con liberta."
IL FESTINO - Atto II-Scena - 5
Carlo Goldoni

"I love these costumes of Venice. At least anybody who has a mask on his face goes freely to any place with anyone."
Celebration - Act II - Scene 5
Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Goldoni, recognised as Moliere of Italy, was born in February 1707, during the Carnival celebrations in the Gothic building Palazzo Certani of 15th Century at the Sao Polo region of Venice. This building, according to the will of his family was given to the city of Venice in 1931 and for a period was used as the Dramatic Arts Institute. And after 1952 was turned into a Theatre Museum.

Carlo Goldoni was a theatre fan who studied law. He started his writing career with tragicomic works and between 1748 and 1762 made a revolution on Commedia Dell'Arte.

On 7th February 1793 he died again at the time of the Festival leaving behind 136 theatrical works (La Locanderia-1753, I Rusteghi-1760, La Villegiatura-1761, La Baruffe Chiozzotte- 1762 etc.).

His bronze statue made by famous sculpture Dal Zotto was erected at San Bartolomeo Square on 20th December 1883.

When the land they were living in was turned into an uninhabitable place by the plunders of the invaders they found running away the only remedy. The last place they arrived was a deserted, swamp and sedgy lagoon with no fresh water springs, not even a patch of fertile soil and a single tree. The weakness of the ground, rising of water couple of times a year (ACQUA ALTA), and above all the temporary sheltering inhabitancy of the place did not prevent them from constructing neatly carved buildings one after the other with the material brought in with so much difficulties from faraway places.

Here the life started with fear ended at the summits of creativity. The power of reason defied all these circumstances and crowned the victory with the works of art surviving for centuries. Preserving the place, as it existed demolished the concept of time. Venice was created out of nothing as if touched by a magical stick. And it still preserves its magical atmosphere like a fairy tale city touched by a magical stick.

There is always melancholy in the masks. As if wailing after a lost era.

Shadows and reflections… Gondolas sliding through the narrow channels like a jet-black swan. The past and the present, dream and reality, all mixing into one another.


Devotion of the public to the past and the traditions in Venice has kept the city undamaged to our day. Most of them being palaces of hundreds of years, tens of churches and at least that many squares and bridges. All of them are as marvellous drawings of a fairy tale book. The people of Venice carry on their faces the taste and happiness of being a part of this glamorous decoration for generations. This expression is much more clear during the ten days of crazy and entertaining Carnival that annually takes place before the Big Fasting, forty days before the Easter.

Carnival is the symbolic reflection of the image of Medieval Venice in our day.

The Venetians, who had given the utmost importance to the concept of nobility throughout the 1100 years of dukedom and created unbelievable difficulties to the new settlers and never accepted them, had to give some wealthy immigrant families (like the Spanish Labbias family) citizenships against enormous amounts of donations (100000 - 200000 Duke Gold) and involuntarily accepted them to join the nobles, consequently seem to display their differences by their attitudes and appearances during the Carnival. The duchesses with their marvellous satin evening dresses, made by skilled masters -decorated with silver, adorned with beautiful laces- and with their curly wigs; and the noble gentlemen with their splendid costumes, big buckled shoes and eye-catching hats; carry their ancestors' lives, even for 10 days, from some centuries ago to our day, with the pride seen in their eyes behind their masks.

The day is theirs. They talk about the Concert of Vivaldi they are going to watch that day at S. Maria della Pieta as they sip their morning coffees at Florian. Whose palace they are invited for lunch, I wonder? Definitely there will be a ball that night. Who knows, may be the magnificent Casanova will join the ball. What a suspence!

They are different; the way they walk, act and talk (The Venetian accent is privileged.) has always been different. While they dance with the favourite melodies of the old centuries on the platform set up at San Marco Square they make the ordinary, simple people, who are watching them with admiration from behind the barriers dressed in interesting costumes and ornamented with masks and make-ups, immediately feel that they are different. They are the fifteenth, twentieth generation grandchildren of the noble Partecipazio, Orseolo, Dandolo, Contarini, Mocenigo and Grimaldi families.

Most of them are brought up and grew at 12th, 13th and 14th century palaces, each with an interesting story, viewing the Grand Canal, The furniture of their museum houses are of priceless value and beauty. May be the reason to stand against the unbearable difficulties of living in Venice (floods, humidity, excessive refurbishment costs, daily travelling to Mestre, Padova, Treviso, Jesolo for business, the maddening buzz of tourist crowds, songs ascending from Gondolas) is catching, even once a year for ten days at the Carnival, the fascinating atmosphere of the old times. While a Venetian always passes his daily life among these hundreds of years old buildings resembling a theatre stage, the costumes and masks are nothing but the only things that were lacked.

In fact, the tradition of wearing a mask in Venice has emerged in the 13th century. This tradition had given the Dukes and judges the chance to walk among the people and collect information on the events directly. This was also found very useful by the women who wanted to go to the Cafés, the first of which was opened in 1683 and closed its doors to the women in 1767. Because the long black gowns and masks could completely hide the sexes of the people as well as their identities. The masks became more colourful, spread into more variety and created more characters with the popularity of Commedia dell' Arte (improvisational folk theatre) in Italy in 16th century. Each region was represented by a different character. ARLECCHINO, who played the poor servant in his diamond-shape designed costume, was the most beloved character in Venice. This character, resembling a clown with his acrobatic actions doubled up the people with laughter while he made them think with the messages he gave. Pantalone was the rich old villain, Colombina was the calm and naïve house girl, and Brighella was the foxy servant.

The Carnival that lasted six months, starting at the beginning of September and ending at the end of February, until 18th century was proclaimed outlaw, being assumed as the symbol of the Venetian nationalism during the French and Austrian invasions, then in the periods when Venetian Dukedom officially ended (1797) and (in 1866) when Venice was forced to join the Italian Unity that was established in 1861. This tradition, which the Venetians tried hard to keep alive in those periods, survived to our day uninterrupted and in 1980 the complete city accepted to be the venue, discrimination of spectators/players ended and a declaration was made that everybody could get involved in the ten days celebrations with costumes and masks.

There is no doubt that the most important part of the Carnival is the finale. On the last Tuesday night before the grand fast (farewell to meat = carnem levare) that is going to last for forty days until the Easter, ten thousands of costumed and masked people, flowing into the square through the small and large canals and streets, impatiently run hither and yon with the excitement of the unsatisfied entertainment that is going to last to the first lights of the day. Neither the cold of Venice in February, nor the fatigue of the ten days prevent them from living this night to the extreme. Music, drinks, dance, entertainment… These people, behind their masks and in their costumes, hiding their identities and sexes, live all kinds of madness to their hearts content with the convenience of being unrecognised. Neither the cold nor fatigue can stop them. The only thing that can end the entertainment is the sound of the ringing bells at the daybreak announcing the start of the grand fast. The square starts to get loose. The people get out of sight one by one in the canals and streets they came hours ago. Now the stage is empty and the players, waking up from a dream, start to go back to real life.

And the decoration continues to stay in its place as it has been for centuries. The palace is standing straight with all its might. Basilica; silently guarding the holy deposits. Bell Tower; keeping an eye on Venice and the lagoons.

Venice goes back to the enchanted silence of winter mornings as the tiny waves wash out the steps of Molo in the morning frost.
EMEL ALTAN EGE 25 February 1998